1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The set of conditions under which a person or a group of people works or executes their obligations is referred to as the work environment. Work environment might include the physical environment, human environment, and relationships with coworkers and administrators, as well as system interaction and the overall atmosphere of the workplace. According to Nakpodia (2006), the effectiveness of any educational system is determined by the instructors’ dedication. However, he claims that in Nigeria, teachers, who are the shapers of civilisation, are condemned to a life of abject poverty. Nigerian teachers’ pay have just lately been made more appealing under the current democratic dispensation. Salaries and allowances, on the other hand, are not the only factors that influence work satisfaction and loyalty. Education is seen as a key driver of socioeconomic development, accounting for up to 20% of the Gross National Product in developing countries. This is founded on the fact that education promotes human productivity by transferring information, skills, attitudes, and behavior features known as human, social, and cultural capital, which are essential in the production of products and services (Higlis, 2008). Employees are regarded as an organization’s most significant resource and asset. Employees who are qualified and motivated produce and deliver value from other organizational resources. Through creating and maintaining their motivation in changing conditions, dynamic and progressive companies strive to recruit and retain the appropriate people for the right roles at the right time. Customer satisfaction and organizational success in a competitive climate are dependent on employee working conditions (Lazear, 2002). Good facilities help instructors do their jobs more effectively. Employees regard work conditions as critical components of their happiness, necessitating regular maintenance and replacement of facilities that aid their comfort and reduce their stress of abandoning their duties in search of a convenient location where comfort facilities are not only installed but also maintained on a regular basis for maximum employee enjoyment. Kumari (2011) stated in his study on employee job satisfaction at work that job satisfaction is a combination of positive or negative sentiments and emotions with which people regard their work. A person who is content with his or her employment has good sentiments about it, whereas a person who is unsatisfied with his or her job has negative feelings about it. Job satisfaction is a major concern for both employees and employers, as it influences a lot of organizational behavior. Smith (2010) found that work satisfaction had an evident influence on happiness and well-being in their study on job satisfaction and individual educational levels. They stated that work takes up a substantial portion of each worker’s day, that work is one’s primary source of social status, that work helps to define who a person is, and that work has an impact on one’s physical and mental health. Job satisfaction is an essential factor in one’s overall well-being (Buchel, 2012). Employment satisfaction refers to how satisfied you are with your job as a whole, which may encompass numerous aspects such as the work itself, money and other benefits, promotion, supervision, and coworkers. These intrinsic and extrinsic job characteristics are linked to participation and commitment, both of which have an impact on productivity. Bucheli went on to say that a number of personal economic and socio-demographic criteria, such as age, education, gender, relative income, and cultural background, might all have a role in work happiness. According to Aya (2010), job happiness is a major component in determining occupational participation and commitment. Melgar (2011) defines it as an entire perceptual reaction to and general attitude toward the current employment. Employee absenteeism, turnover, diminished effort, theft, work discontent, and refusal to be transferred have all been attributed to a lack of organizational commitment or loyalty, according to them. Teachers in the state are less devoted to their jobs due to a lack of motivation and a lack of job satisfaction. As a result, they are unmotivated and do not devote enough time to excellent student teaching or adequately plan their courses to instill the required skills using appropriate approaches (Buchel, 2010). As a result, their contributions to the achievement of school objectives are minimal. They refuse to engage in programs that promote the school’s name’s tone. Similarly, pupils fare poorly in exams because they do not learn the necessary abilities. This leads to low performance and, as a result, work unhappiness, which manifests itself in many types of teacher misbehavior. As a result, the focus of this research is on the government’s upkeep of teachers’ working and living circumstances in Ondo state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In any organization, the work environment is a major determinant of employee performance to a large extent. According to a research by Roelofsen (2002), enhancing the workplace environment decreases complaints and absenteeism while also increasing productivity. There is sufficient empirical evidence linking job satisfaction to workplace conditions (Wells, 2000). Employee comfort on the job, as determined by workplace conditions and environment, has been recognized as an important factor in determining productivity in recent years. Employee work satisfaction has an impact on the quality of service provided in the education sector, which has an impact on student achievement and the overall output of the employee engaged. As a result, efforts to enhance employee work satisfaction can result in happier staff, who have a beneficial impact on student performance and overall productivity. Organizations must consequently be able to manage a varied set of employees in order to help in the recruitment and retention of skilled individuals, as well as ensuring high levels of job satisfaction. As a result, Heartfield (2012) believes that knowing which key elements impact employee happiness is critical in order to build an atmosphere for employee satisfaction that can help workplace performance (emphasis added). Teachers appear to be dissatisfied with their professions in general, which has an impact on the overall educational system, particularly secondary schools that supply input to higher education institutions. The country’s poor educational standards are thus linked to this issue, particularly in Ondo state, which is already distinguished by educational backwardness. Teachers in Ondo state frequently complain about being denied a variety of benefits, including free medical care for themselves, their wives, and children, staff housing loans, vehicle and vehicle refurbishment loans, regular promotion, leave grants, disturbance allowance, adhoc committee allowances, bush allowance, and overtime allowance. They appear to be unsatisfied with their work as a result of these factors, among others. Because of these issues, it is clear that a study of the government’s upkeep of teachers’ working and living circumstances in Ondo state is required.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The overall goal of this research is to look into the government’s upkeep of teachers’ working and living circumstances in Ondo state, with a focus on the Ibadan north LGA. The following are some of the specific goals:
i. To learn about the working and living situations of teachers in Ondo state’s Ibadan north LGA.
ii. To determine the impact of teachers’ working and housing circumstances on their job satisfaction in the Ibadan north LGA of Ondo state.
iii. To investigate the effect of teachers’ working and living circumstances on the rate of teacher turnover in Ondo state’s Ibadan north LGA.
iv. To see if there is a link between the working and living situations of teachers and their work performance.
v. To determine the government’s involvement in sustaining decent working and living circumstances for teachers in Ondo state’s Ibadan north LGA.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What is the working and living situations of teachers in Ondo state’s Ibadan north LGA?
ii. What are the impacts of teachers’ working and housing circumstances on their job satisfaction in the Ibadan north LGA of Ondo state?
iii. What are the effects of teachers’ working and living circumstances on the rate of teacher turnover in Ondo state’s Ibadan north LGA?
iv. What is the link between the working and living situations of teachers and their work performance?
v. What is the government’s involvement in sustaining decent working and living circumstances for teachers in Ondo state’s Ibadan north LGA?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research is important for teachers, parents, and students. This research will assist the school’s teachers in understanding an examination of the government’s maintenance of teachers’ working and living conditions. The research will help the school’s instructors to see that, in addition to the social advantages, maintaining these teachers’ working and living conditions will contribute significantly to the development and improvement of the teaher. It would be useful in supporting students because teachers are in good functioning order and will have an easy time imparting knowledge. It will give useful information for instructors and other researchers working on similar projects. Researchers will benefit from the study since it will provide additional information on the government’s upkeep of teachers’ working and living environments.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research looks on how the government keeps teachers’ working and living circumstances in good shape. The goal was to cover at least five local government areas in Ondo State, however owing to time and other unanticipated constraints, only samples from Ibadan north local government area in Ondo state were collected.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Analysis is a term that refers to a thorough investigation of something’s components or structure.
Maintenance: The process of conserving a condition, situation, or the state of being preserved.
Teacher: A person who teaches, especially at a school.