1.1 Background Of Study
Basic science and technology emerged as a subject area in Nigeria in the late 1960s, and its teaching and learning have since been institutionalized in schools (Vincent, 2009). This is because one of the goals of science education is to pique students’ interest in science and technology. Both substance and procedure are addressed by basic science. Basic science has always been concerned with some aspect of integration. We used a conceptual approach to content selection (Akpan, 1999). The information was organized into teaching units using a spiral approach. This way, topics were to be introduced at a simple level and then expanded further when the child’s intellect evolved and became capable of grappling with such scientific processes and knowledge.
With fast global scientific and technological growth, diminishing student achievement in science courses is a global problem that has resulted in international attempts to reform basic science (Ozcan & Genc, 2016; Torres & Vasconcelos, 2017). The development of science and technology is critical to modern civilization (Uzunboylu & Tugun, 2016). Teachers are encouraged to develop strategies to increase students’ interest in and achievement in science and related fields.
Notably, no country can afford to ignore basic science at any level of schooling and expect to flourish in any field of human endeavor. Basic science is necessary for every civilization to function effectively. It is the source of resources essential for socioeconomic, scientific, and technical development vital for any nation’s progress. According to Olatoye (2002), basic science builds the groundwork for careers in science-related disciplines by providing students with the required information regarding specific knowledge, abilities, and attitudes.
However, the rate of low performance in science among secondary school students in general, and in basic science in particular, is frightening. Okeke (2007) observed that performance in basic science has deteriorated over time.
On the other hand, instructional materials may have a major impact on students’ academic achievement in basic science. Numerous items may be used as instructional media for teaching and learning (Okoye, 2015). The research will concentrate on the successful use of models and charts in basic science learning.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Although the federal government of Nigeria has made significant efforts to enhance the educational system in Nigeria, there are still considerable gaps in students’ academic performance in basic science. The issue of kids’ deficiencies in science, particularly in basic science at a higher level, necessitates grassroots investigation (primary school level). Among the difficulties teachers and students have while teaching and learning basic science include a shortage of models and charts, old infrastructure, and insufficient classrooms.
There is consequently a need for study to examine the elements that influence the teaching and learning of basic science and to establish the importance of the usage of models and charts in basic science education. The purpose of this research is to ascertain the influence of model and chart usage on the academic performance of students studying basic science in Umuahia, Abia State.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The study is generally focused on enhancing the teaching/learning of basic science through the use of models and charts in Nigerian secondary schools. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
1. Identify the factors affecting the teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools.
2. Determine whether the use of models and charts enhances the effective teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools.
3. Ascertain whether there is any difference in academic performance of students taught using charts/models and those that are taught without models/charts.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions;
1) What are the factors affecting the teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools?
2) Does the use of models and charts enhances the effective teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools?
3) Is there any difference in the academic performance of students taught using charts/models and those that are taught without models/charts?
1.5 Significance Of Study
The study on the effect of models and charts on student academic performance in basic science will be of immense benefit to the entire secondary schools in Umuahia, Abia State in the sense that the study will educate the both the teachers and the students in the use of models and charts and its effect on students academic performance by comparing the academic performance of students that are taught using charts and those that are taught using models. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research.
1.7 Scope Of Study
This study is structured to focus on enhancing the teaching/learning of basic science through the use of models and charts in Nigerian secondary schools. However, the study will further identify the factors affecting the teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools, determine whether the use of models and charts enhances the effective teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools, and ascertain whether there is any difference in academic performance of students taught using charts/models and those that are taught without models/charts. The study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Umuahia, Abia State.
1.7 Limitation Of Study
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.8 Definition Of Term
Models of teaching: A model of teaching is a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curriculums (long-term courses of studies), to design instructional materials, and to guide instruction in the classroom and other settings based on Joyce and Weil (1980)
Charts: charts are materials used to make thinking visible as you record strategies, processes, cues, guidelines and other content during the learning process in basic science.