The study examined the Effect of Graphics on the Print Media using Osun Defender newspaper as a case study. However, it is obvious that photographs place a very prominent role in newspaper and the world of print media in general. It communicates messages even to the illiterates. A newspaper without the use of photograph will be noting but look like a letter or text book and such publication cannot interest readers. Also, photographs draw the attention of the reader to the most prominent news and issue especially when placed at the front page of a newspaper while placement also used to set agenda on what public will debate upon that day. In fact the headline scanners and photo scanner always find it easy to know the most important news of the day. Without messing word, photographs communication message than what a thousand words can tell. For the purpose of this work the researcher employed the use of Survey method along side the use of questionnaire.
1.1 Background to the Study
Graphics especially photographs at glance trap the readers. If a photo is interesting enough, the reader will stop to it and read the caption and if the interest stays there the title of the article is read next. If the beginning of the article is catching enough the reader will read all of it. In conclusion only few of readers read an article but almost all the photos get noticed. Photos are of primary importance when selling magazine. The photos are actually magazine marketing.
Print media are over the years compete and struggling to survive. One basic tactic newspapers and magazines have often used to put message across. Photographs are used extensively by newspapers and magazines to convey information and advertise products and services. Practical application of photography is found in nearly every human endeavor from astronomy to medical diagnosis to industrial quality control. Photography extends human vision into the realm of objects that are invisible because they are too small or too distant, or events that occur too rapidly for the naked eye to detect. A camera can be used in locations too dangerous for humans. Photographs can also be objects of art that explore the human condition and provide aesthetic pleasure. For millions of people, photography is a satisfying hobby or a rewarding career.
The public wants to spend more time with pictures than text, and the immediacy and availability of photography makes that possible. Consumers want a photo with every story they read, but that it can cause strong emotions since a photograph can tell an entire story.
Photo journalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication) that creates images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.g., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work is both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media.
• Timeliness — The images have meaning in the context of a recently published record of events.
• Objectivity — The situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict in both content and tone.
• Narrative — The images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to the viewer or reader on a cultural level.
Like a writer, a photojournalist is a reporter but he or she must often make decisions instantly and carry photographic equipment, often while exposed to significant obstacles (e.g., physical danger, weather, crowds).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is no doubt about the fact that graphics especially photographs take two dimensions in newspaper either tell the story in all (Stand Alone Photo) or to complement story. It is important to realize that for information or photographs to have any substantial impact, influence and effect on the readers.
Despite the fact that photojournalists are using their camera to tell stories by bringing the source of the events closest to their readers, yet it needs to be interpreted most of the time even the STAND ALONE PHOTO need some wording to accompany it, called caption. However, a good photograph without caption may mean little or no meaning to some reader.
Therefore, in this research efforts shall be made on how photographs can provide message either with or without caption in reporting events.
1.3 Research Questions
v To what extent does photograph tell the story?
v To what extent do photojournalists use their camera to tell stories?
v To what extent does newspaper houses use photograph in reporting an events?
v Do readers find photograph interesting?
v To what extent does photograph capture and retain the attention of
v To what extent does headlines and photo scanners find photograph interesting and holding the
1.4 Objectives of the Study
v To examine whether photographs tell story?
v To examine the extent which photojournalists use their camera to tell
v To know how newspaper houses use photograph in reporting an event?
v To know if readers find photograph interesting?
v To know how photograph capture and retain the attention of newspaper
v To know how headlines and photo scanners find photograph interesting
and holding their attention?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Journalists: The significant of this study aims at revealing to the media practitioners on the benefit of photograph to readers. It will assist the media practitioners to know their role in keeping public informed through their camera.
Students: students of mass communication and other related field will know
the role of photographs in newspaper production.
Researchers: It will further enable other researchers to continue from the aspect which this study has not covered.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The primary objective of the project is to examine the role of graphics (photographs) in newspaper reporting and production . This topic itself has limited the scope of this study through the use of Osun Defender Newspaper as a case study.
1.7 Limitation to the Study
Wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constrains, this constrains pose a lot of limitations to this work.
Time: Duration for the research work is i ative1y short while stress emanated from other academic activities is also another constrain.
Material: Little materials are also available because the work is relatively new.
Financial: Financial constrain poses another challenges as most of information are gathered through newspapers.
1.8 Definition of the Terms
Newspaper: This is written form of disseminating information to the masses such as which contains articles, news photo, advert and other form of opinions usually printed daily for the public consumption.
Graphic Communication: As the name suggests is communication through graphics and graphical aids. It is the 1iocess of creating, producing, and distributing material incorporating words wd images to convey news, message, data, concepts, and especially in newspaper.
Photographs: Photograph or photo is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic image.